Properties of Included Phloem in Teakwood

Ganis Lukmandaru


In some areas of Indonesia, the heartwood of teak tree (Tectona grandis L.f.) contains included phloem, which is categorized as defects. This paper characterized the colour and chemical properties of such abnormal wood. Three selected trees from Perhutani plantation, Randublatung region, were assessed. The heartwood colour properties were measured by CIELAB system. Result showed that the included phloem-containing heartwood (IPHW) was darker (L*), but less red (a*) and yellow (b*) compared to the adjacent normal heartwood (NHW). The lignin and ash contents were not significantly different in the wood radial direction. In contrast, the level of extractive contents were significantly different between sapwood and heartwood. The amount of ethanol-benzene extractive and solubility in 1% NaOH in the IPHW region were significantly higher than that in normal tissues. The analysis of extractive components using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the deoxylapachol and lapachol was highly marked in the IPWH region. The obtained results suggest that napthaquinone compounds were related to the protection against wood-destroying organisme attack.


Tectona grandis L.f; included phloem; chemical properties; colour properties; extractives

Full Text:



ASTM D-1102. 1984a. Standard Test Method for Ash in Wood. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

ASTM D-1110. 1984b. Standard Test Method for Water Solubility of Wood. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

ASTM D-1109. 1984c. Standard Test Methods for 1% Sodium Hydroxide Solubility in Wood. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

BSN. 2010a. Kayu Bundar Jenis Jati – Bagian 1: Klasifikasi, Persyaratan, dan Penandaan. Standar Nasional Indonesia 7535.1: 2010. Badan Standardisasi Nasional, Jakarta.

BSN. 2010b. Kayu Gergajian Jenis Jati - Cara Uji. Standar Nasional Indonesia 7539.2: 2010. Badan Standardisasi Nasional, Jakarta.

Carlquist, S. 2013. Interxylary Phloem: Diversity and Functions. Brittonia 65(4): 477–495.

Chow, P.; O. Pearson; and H.V. Heuvel. 1990. The effects of included phloem on some mechanical properties in kempas Koompassia malaccensis wood. IAWA Bulletin 11(2):121.

Fengel, D. and G. Wegener. 1995. Kayu: Kimia, Ultrastuktur, Reaksi-reaksi. (Terjemahan). Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta.

Henriksson G. 2009. Lignin. In Ek M; G. Gellerstedt; G. Henriksson (eds.) Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Technology Volume 1 Wood Chemistry and Wood Biotechnology. Walter de Gryuter, Berlin. Pp. 124.

Hillis, W.E. 1987. Heartwood and tree exudates. Springer-Verlag. Berlin Heidelberg.

Kofujita, H.; K. Ettyu; and M. Ota. 1999. Characterization of the Major Components in Bark from Five Japanese Tree Species for Chemical Utilization. Wood Science and Technology 33: 223-228.

Lee, Y.H. and P.Y. Shum. 1962. Effect of included phloem on the strength of timber. Malayan Forester 25: 292-299.

Lemos, T.G.; S.M. Costa; O.L. Pessoa; and R. Braz-Filho. 1999. Total assignment of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of tectol and tecomaquinone. Magnetic Resonance of Chemistry 37: 908-911.

Lukmandaru, G. 2011. Komponen Kimia Kayu pada Kayu Jati dengan Pertumbuhan Eksentris. 2009. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan 5 (1): 21-29.

Lukmandaru, G. 2012. Chemotaxonomic Study in the Heartwood of Javanese Teak – Analysis of Quinones and other Related Components. Wood Research Journal 3: 30-35.

Lukmandaru, G. 2013. Antifungal Activities of Certain Components of Teak Wood Extractives. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis 11 (1): 11-18.

Lukmandaru, G. 2015. Chemical Characteristics of Teakwood Attacked by Neotermes tectonae. BioResources 10 (2):2094-2102.

Lukmandaru, G. and K. Takahashi. 2009. Radial Distribution of Quinones in Plantation Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.). Annals of Forest Science 66 (6): 605 p1 – p9

Lukmandaru, G.; T. Ashitani; and K. Takahashi. 2009. Colour and Chemical Characterization of Partially Black- streaked Heartwood in Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.). Journal of Forestry Research 20: 377-380.

Mauseth, J.D. 2014. Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology, fifth edition. James and Bartlett Learning, Burlington, USA, pp 192.

Niamké, F.B.; N. Amusant; J.P. Charpentier; G. Chaix; Y. Baissac; N. Boutahar; A.A. Adima; S.K. Coulibaly; and C.J. Allemand. 2011. Relationships between Biochemical Attributes (Non-structural Carbohydrates and Phenolics) and Natural Durability Against Fungi in Dry Teak Wood (Tectona grandis L.f.). Annals of Forest Science 68: 201-211.

Outer, R.W. and W.L.M. van Veenendaal. 1995. Development of Included Phloem in the Stem of Combretum nigricans (Combretaceae). IAWA Journal 16: 151-158.

Perry, N.B.; J.W. Blunt; and M.H.G Munro. 1991. A Cytotoxic and Antifungal 1,4 Naphtaquinone and Related Compounds from a New Zealand Brown Alga, Landsburgia quercifolia. Journal of Natural Product 54: 978-985.

Rajput, K.S.; V.S. Patil; and K.S. Rao. 2009. Development of Included Phloem of Calycopteris floribunda Lamk. (Combretaceae). Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 136: 302-312.

Rajput, K.S.; V.M. Raole; and D. Gandhi. 2008. Radial Secondary Growth and Formation of Successive Cambia and Their Products in Ipomoea hederifolia L. (Convolvulaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 158(11): 30-40.

Sandermann W. and M.H. Simatupang. 1966. On the Chemistry and Biochemistry of Teakwood (Tectona grandis L. fil). Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 24: 190-204.

Sjostrom, E. 1995. Kimia Kayu Dasar-dasar dan Penggunaan. Edisi Kedua. (Terjemahan). Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta.

Sumthong, P.; R.A. Damveld; Y.H. Choi; M. Arentshorst, A.F.J. Ram, C.A.M.J.J. van den Hondel; and R. Verpoorte. 2006. Activity of Quinones from Teak (Tectona grandis) on Fungal Cell Wall Stress. Planta Medica 72: 943–944.

Sumthong, P.; R.R. Romero-González; and R. Verpoorte. 2008. Identification of Anti-wood Rot Compounds in Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) Sawdust Extract. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology 28: 247-260.

TAPPI. 1992. Acid-insoluble in Wood and Pulp. TAPPI Test Method T 222 os-74. Technical Association for the Pulp and Paper Industries Press. Atlanta.

Usta, M. and Z. Kara. 1997. The Chemical Composition of Wood and Bark of Cedrus libani A. Rich. Holz als Rohund Werkstoff 55 : 268.

Veenendaal, W.L.H. and R.W. den Outer. 1993. Development of Included Phloem and Organization of the Phloem Network in the Stem of Strychnos millepunctata (Loganiaceae). IAWA Journal 14: 253–265.

Voulgaridis, E.; A. Grigoriou; and C. Passialis. 1985. Investigations on Bark Extractives of Pinus halepensis Mill. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 43: 269-272

Windeisen, E.; A. Klassen; and G. Wegener. 2003. On the Chemical Characterization of Plantation Teakwood (Tectona grandis L.) from Panama. Holz als Rohund Werkstoff 61: 416-418.

Wong, A.H.H. 1988. Natural Decay Resistance of Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) with Included Phloem Against Rot Fungi: A Laboratory Evaluation. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1: 162-169.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Wood Research Journal

Indexed by:




Copyright ©Wood Research Journal  

    ISSN: 2087-3840,       EISSN: 2774-9320



WRJ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License